The tumor of the pituitary gland originates from the pituitary body (pituitary gland), the hormonal gland at the baseline of the skull. Pituitary gland is divided into anterior (adenohypophysis) and posterior lobe (neurohypophysis).
The tumors of the pituitary gland develop from the anterior lobe and therefore are also called pituitary adenomas.
These pituitary adenomas are usually benign
In the clinical presentation, tumors are either manifested as supersecretion of hormones (neuromediators) (see hormones-active tumors of the pituitary gland) or lead, due to their increasing size, to compression of neighboring anatomical structures. Such structures include, in particular, the optic nerve (Nervus opticus) and the pituitary gland itself.
If the optic nerve is compressed by the tumor, this usually results in the so-called visual field defect (bitemporal hemianopsia), this means that patients are unable to perceive objects and people who are on the outer edge of the field of view or can do it badly.
If pituitary gland compression occurs, this may lead to the pituitary function decrease (hypopituitarism). The suffered patients often complain about the lack of physical endurance and increased fatigability. Typical alabaster-colored skin and reduced body hair may be partly observed.
Many tumors of the pituitary gland do not initially require surgery, and despite their progressive size, they can be treated medicamentally. Such tumors include, for example, very common prolactinomas. Medicamentous therapy is carried out in close cooperation with the Department of Endocrinology. If surgery is required (for example, in the case of visual impairment), it is usually performed by easy access through the nose without opening the skull. Due to the use of all modern aids such as neuronavigation and endoscopy, the operation is minimally invasive and minimally dangerous, including in the case of repeated growth of tumors (relapse). In some cases, the operation can be also carried out by a completely endoscopic method. Most commonly, the pituitary gland can be preserved.