Diseases of the knee joint

Diseases of the knee joint can be divided into two large groups:

1. degenerative diseases

2. traumatic injuries of the knee joint

On this page, you will find information about the most common pictures of diseases of both groups, as well as a description of the appropriate treatment methods.

Degenerative diseases of the knee joint

Human knee joint is one of the most loaded joints. As in the case of the hip joint, a decrease in articular cartilage occurs throughout life, up to a complete loss of cartilage in the joint. In this case, we are talking about arthrosis. Arthrosis can affect both individual parts of the joint (from internal and external sides), and the entire knee joint.

The reasons for this process are varied. Cartilage damage with arthrosis can be caused by common “aging processes”, injuries and deformation of the axis of the lower extremities (X or O-shaped legs).

Aging process is a continuous process of loss of elasticity of the articular cartilage. The course of the disease is very individual, as other factors play an integral role in the progression of the disease, such as overweight and exercises. Damage to the cartilage can also be caused by the incorrect load on the joint (the main load falls on the internal side of the knee joint with O-shaped deformation of the lower extremities or on the external side with X-shaped deformation). Such incorrect load can lead to the development of the disease already at the young age. In such cases, the corrective operation of the lower extremity axis (corrective osteotomy) can help patients.

Elderly patients with partial or complete arthrosis of the knee joint we carry out partial or complete endoprosthesis replacement of the knee joint. Information on these operations can be found in the section of the knee endoprosthesis.

Traumatic injuries of the knee joint

Because of direct or indirect effects on the knee joint, in addition to fractures of the hip or lower leg in the knee joint area, damage can occur in the knee joint itself.

This includes damage to the meniscus, rupture of the anterior or posterior cruciate ligament or lateral ligaments, as well as damage to the articular cartilage.

In these cases, in order to further treat and control the course of the disease, it is important to obtain an accurate picture of the degree of severity of the lesion. For this purpose, patients undergo such an “operation” as arthroscopic examination of the knee joint (arthroscopy). The advantage of this examination is the ability to determine the extent of damage and the immediate elimination of many damages.

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